Model TOR for Hydropower Projects
Policy, Legal and Administrative Framework
Review of the Country's legislative and administrative frame work within which the Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) is to be undertaken to ensure that the project is in compliance with national environmental and social requirements.
Scoping and Assessment of Alternatives
Scoping should be done before EIA, using suitable standard matrices. All the alternatives explored by project proponent should be studied from the environmental angle. Scoping matrix, likely impacts identified for various aspects of environment (aquatic, terrestrial and socio-economic) during construction and operation phase of the project must be discussed in brief for each alternative and reasons for selecting the best and optimum alternative on social and environmental considerations, and reasons for rejecting other alternatives be mentioned.
Methods used for collecting data must be mentioned. In analysis of Air, Water and Noise, methodology adopted, instruments used etc., should be mentioned. The land-use/land-cover pattern of the area should be determined through remote sensing studies, interpretation of satellite imagery, topographic sheets coupled with ground truthing. In analysis of terrestrial as well as aquatic biota, the references used as guidelines should be cited. Standard methods must be used for characterizing the diversity and other significant features of the biota and details of field survey given.
The baseline studies will consist of 3 seasonal studies (Pre-monsoon, monsoon and winter seasons) and will be conducted in the following study area.
Study Area: The study area should include the following areas:
· Catchment Area
· Submergence Area
Project Area to be acquired for various
appurtenant works area within
· To examine the cascading effect, a clear map showing the approved/under construction/completed HEPs on the both U/S and D/S to this project. Connect such information to establish the total length of interference of natural river flow, the total length of tunnelling of the river and the committed unrestricted release from the site of diversion into the main river.
· Adverse impact on land stability, catchment soil erosion, reservoir sedimentation and spring flow (if any) due to (a) considerable road construction/ widening activity (b) interfere of reservoir with the in-flowing streams (c) blasting for commissioning the HRT, TRT and some other structures should be studied
· Various maps providing salient features of the project need to be depicted in proper scale map of at least 1:15,000 like
1. The location map of the proposed project.
2. The project layout shall be superimposed on a contour map of ground elevation showing main project features (viz. location of dam, head works, main canal, branch canals, quarrying etc.) shall be depicted in a scaled map.
3. Drainage map of the catchment up to the project site.
4. Soil map of the study area.
5. Geological and seismotectonic maps of the study area showing main project features.
6. Remote sensing studies, interpretation of satellite imagery, topographic sheets along with ground verification shall be used to develop the land use/land cover pattern of study area using overlay mapping techniques viz. Geographic Information Systems (GISs). False colour composite (FCC) generated from satellite data of study area should be presented.
A. BASELINE DATA
1. Geological and Geophysical Aspects
· Geography & physiography of the project area
· Design discharge & its RI ( Recurrence interval)
· Regional Geology and structure of the catchment
· Seismicity, tectonics and history of past earthquakes in the area
· Critical review of the geological features around the project area
· Impact of project on geological environment
· Justification for location & execution of the project in relation to structural components (dam/barrage height)
Study of Design Earthquake Parameters
specific study of earth quake parameters will be done. The results of the site
specific earth quake design parameters will be sent for approval of the NCSDP
(National Committee of Seismic Design Parameters, Central Water Commission,
3. Hydrology of the basin
to be done during EIA to get actual silt flow rate (to be expressed in ha-m km-2 year-1). The one year of EIA study will provide an opportunity to do this for ascertaining the actual silt flow rate.
4. Biological Resources
· General vegetation pattern and floral diversity viz. trees, shrubs, grasses, herbs, significant microflora etc. Vegetation should cover all gropus of plants including lichens and orchids.
· Forests and forest types
· Water body inundating forest area
· Vegetation profile, no. of species in the project area, etc.
· Community Structure through Vegetation mapping
· Species Diversity Index (Shanon-Weaver Index) of the biodiversity in the project area as well as plant fossil & phytoplankton
· Documentation of economically important plants, medicinal as well as timber, fuel wood etc.
· Endemic, endangered and threatened species
· Impact of impoundment and construction activities on the vegetation
· Cropping and Horticulture pattern and practices in the study area.
· Location of any Biosphere Reserve, National Park or Sanctuary in the vicinity of the project , if any
· For categorization of sub-catchments into various erosion classes and for the consequent CAT plan, the entire catchment (Indian portion) is to be considered and not only the directly draining catchment,
· Fauna study should be carried-out for all group of animals
· Inventorisation of terrestrial wildlife and present status
· Zoogeographic distribution/affinities, Endemic, threatened and endangered species and animal fossil
· Fauna study should be carried-out for all group of animals
· Resident/Migratory/Passage migrants
· Zoogeographic distribution/affinities, endemic, threatened and endangered species & animal fossils
· Impact of project on threatened/endangered taxa, if any
· Inventorisation of terrestrial wildlife and present status along with schedule of the species
iv. Aquatic Ecology
· Aqua- fauna like macro-invertebrates, zooplankton, phytoplanktons, benthos etc.
· Conservation Status
Fish and Fisheries
· Fish migrations, if any
· Breeding grounds
· Impact of dam building on fish migration and habitat degradation
Overall ecological impact upto
v. Conservation areas and status of threatened/endangered taxa
· Biotic Pressures
· Management plan for conservation areas and threatened/endangered taxa
vi. Remote Sensing & GIS studies – various maps Various maps providing salient features of the project need to be depicted in proper scale map of at least 1:15,000 like
§ The project layout shall be superimposed on a contour map of ground elevation showing main project features (viz. location of dam, head works, main canal, branch canals, quarrying etc.) shall be depicted in a scaled map.
· Delineation of critically degraded areas in the directly draining catchment on the basis of Silt Yield Index as per the methodology of AISLUS
· The location map of the proposed project.
· Land use and land cover mapping
· Drainage pattern/map
· Soil map of the study area
· Geo-physical features, slope and relief maps Geological and seismotectonic maps of the study area showing main project features.
Remote sensing studies, interpretation of satellite imagery, topographic sheets along with ground verification shall be used to develop the land use/land cover pattern of study area using overlay mapping techniques viz. Geographic Information Systems (GISs). False colour composite (FCC) generated from satellite data of study area should be presented
· Demarcation of Snow fed and rain fed areas for a realistic estimate of the water availability.
vii. Socio-economic aspects
· Land details*
· Demographic profile
· Ethnographic Profile
· Economic structure
· Development profile
· Agricultural practices
· Cultural and aesthetics sites
· Infrastructure facilities: education, health and hygiene, communication network, etc.
· Impact on socio-cultural and ethnographic aspects due to dam building report.
*Report would include list of all the Project Affected Families with their names, education, land holdings, other properties, occupation, etc.
viii. Collection of data pertaining to water (physico-chemical and biological parameters), air and noise environment and likely impact during construction and post construction periods.
ix. Air Environment
· Baseline Information on ambient air quality in the project area covering aspects like SPM, RSPM, Sox, NOx
· Noise Environment
· Traffic density in the project area
x. Construction Methodology and Schedule including the tunnel driving operations, machinery and charge density, etc.
B. IMPACT PREDICTION
· Changes in ambient levels and ground level concentrations due to total emissions from point, line and area sources
· Effects on soils, material, vegetation, and human health
· Impact of emissions DG sets used for construction power if any, on air environment.
· Changes in ambient levels due to noise generated from equipment, blasting operations and movement of vehicles
· Effect on fauna and human health
· Changes in quality
· Sedimentation of reservoir
· Impact on fish fauna
· Impact of sewage disposal
· Changes in land use and drainage pattern
· Changes in land quality including effects of waste disposal
· Riverbank and their stability
· Impact due to submergence
· Deforestation and shrinkage of animal habitat
· Impact on fauna and flora (including aquatic species if any) due to decreased flow of water
· Impact on rare and endangered species, endemic species, and migratory path/route of animals, if any
· Impact on breeding and nesting grounds, if any
· Impact on animal distribution, migration routes (if any), habitat fragmentation and destruction due to dam building activity
· Impact on the local community including demographic changes
· Impact on economic status
· Impact on human health
· Impact on increased traffic
· Impact on Holy Places and Tourism
· Downstream impact on water, land & human environment due to drying up of the river in the stretch between dam site and powerhouse site.
· Positive as well as negative impacts likely to be accrued due to the project are to be listed.
I. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGENET PLAN (EMP)
a) Catchment Area Treatment Plan
Delineation of micro-watersheds in the river catchment and mapping of critically degraded areas requiring various biological and engineering treatment measures. Identification of area for treatment based upon Remote Sensing & GIS methodology and Silt Yield Index (SYI) method of AISLUS coupled with ground survey. The prioritization of watershed for treatment based upon SYI. Spatial Information in each micro watershed should be earmarked on maps in the scale of 1:50,000. The Cat plan would be prepared with year-wise Physical and financial details.
Creation of Green Belt Plan around the Periphery
of the Reservoir and Compensatory Afforestation Scheme in consultation with the
c) Biodiversity Conservation and Wild life Management Plan for conservation and preservation of endemic, rare and endangered species of flora and fauna (in consultation with the State Wildlife Department)
c) Fisheries Development plan for conservation/management of
d) Resettlement & Rehabilitation (R&R) Plan along with social/community development. R&R plan would be framed in consultation with the Project Affected Persons (PAPs), Project Authorities and the State Government. R & R Plan would be drafted according to the NPRR 2003 and the policy of State Government.
e) Muck Disposal Plan (Suitable sites for dumping of excavated material would be identified in consultation with the State Pollution Control Board and Forest Department)
f) Energy Conservation Measures
g) Dam Break Analysis & Disaster Management Plan.
h) Restoration and landscaping of working Areas: reclamation of borrow pits (quarry sites) and construction areas.
i) Public Health Delivery System including the provisions for drinking water facility for the local community.
j) Management during the Road Construction
k) Sanitation & Solid Waste Management Plan for domestic waste from colonies and labour camps, etc.
l) Water and Air Quality & Noise Environment Management during construction and post-construction periods.
n) Reservoir RIM Treatment Plan
o) Environmental Monitoring Programme (With physical & financial details covering all the aspects form EMP).
p) For such a large and high budget project, neglecting drinking water component may not be justified. Therefore, if supplying safe drinking water to the population surrounding the project area is not to be considered, a clear justification for this may be given
q) Option assessment study to show that are the option available for fulfilling the needs of the people that the project hopes to fulfill. This section should also show if and how the proposed project is the least cost option and also include reducing the transmission and distribution losses to the minimum.
r) A summary of Cost Estimate for all the plans (Cost for implementing all the Environmental Management Plans including the cost for implementing Environmental Monitoring Programme, aforesaid compensation, mitigation and management measures, etc.)
In respect of North-East, the following should be added
· Tribal area development plan as the area is predominantly tribal.
· Mitigations measures to check shifting cultivation (Zhum Cultivation) in the catchment area with provision for alternative and better agricultural practices
· In addition to Socio-economic aspects of the study area, a separate chapter on socio-cultural aspects based upon study on Ethnography of the area.