Model TOR for Hydropower Projects

 

EIA Studies

 

Policy, Legal and Administrative Framework

 

Review of the Country's legislative and administrative frame work within which the Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) is to be undertaken to ensure that the project is in compliance with national environmental and social requirements.

 

Scoping and Assessment of Alternatives

 

Scoping should be done before EIA, using suitable standard matrices. All the alternatives explored by project proponent should be studied from the environmental angle. Scoping matrix, likely impacts identified for various aspects of environment (aquatic, terrestrial and socio-economic) during construction and operation phase of the project must be discussed in brief for each alternative and reasons for selecting the best and optimum alternative on social and environmental considerations, and reasons for rejecting other alternatives be mentioned.

 

Methodology

 

Methods used for collecting data must be mentioned. In analysis of Air, Water and Noise, methodology adopted, instruments used etc., should be mentioned. The land-use/land-cover pattern of the area should be determined through remote sensing studies, interpretation of satellite imagery, topographic sheets coupled with ground truthing. In analysis of terrestrial as well as aquatic biota, the references used as guidelines should be cited. Standard methods must be used for characterizing the diversity and other significant features of the biota and details of field survey given.

 

The baseline studies will consist of 3 seasonal studies (Pre-monsoon, monsoon and winter seasons) and will be conducted in the following study area.

Study Area: The study area should include the following areas:

 

                    Catchment Area

                    Submergence Area

                    Project Area to be acquired for various appurtenant works area within 10 km from main project components (i.e. Dam/Barrage/Diversion structure, Power house etc).

                    To examine the cascading effect, a clear map showing the approved/under construction/completed HEPs on the both U/S and D/S to this project. Connect such information to establish the total length of interference of natural river flow, the total length of tunnelling of the river and the committed unrestricted release from the site of diversion into the main river.

                     Adverse impact on land stability, catchment soil erosion, reservoir sedimentation and spring flow (if any) due to (a) considerable road construction/ widening activity (b) interfere of reservoir with the in-flowing streams (c) blasting for commissioning the HRT, TRT and some other structures should be studied

                     Various maps providing salient features of the project need to be depicted in proper scale map of at least 1:15,000 like

 

1.      The location map of the proposed project.

2.      The project layout shall be superimposed on a contour map of ground elevation showing main project features (viz. location of dam, head works, main canal, branch canals, quarrying etc.) shall be depicted in a scaled map.

3.      Drainage map of the catchment up to the project site.

4.      Soil map of the study area.

5.      Geological and seismotectonic maps of the study area showing main project features.

6.      Remote sensing studies, interpretation of satellite imagery, topographic sheets along with ground verification shall be used to develop the land use/land cover pattern of study area using overlay mapping techniques viz. Geographic Information Systems (GISs). False colour composite (FCC) generated from satellite data of study area should be presented.

 

A.            BASELINE DATA

 

1.             Geological and Geophysical Aspects

        Geography & physiography of the project area

        Design discharge & its RI ( Recurrence interval)

        Regional Geology and structure of the catchment

        Seismicity, tectonics and history of past earthquakes in the area

        Critical review of the geological features around the project area

        Impact of project on geological environment

        Justification for location & execution of the project in relation to structural components (dam/barrage height)

 

2.             Seismo-tectonics:

Study of Design Earthquake Parameters

A site specific study of earth quake parameters will be done. The results of the site specific earth quake design parameters will be sent for approval of the NCSDP (National Committee of Seismic Design Parameters, Central Water Commission, New Delhi for large dams.

 

3.             Hydrology of the basin

      • Hydro-meteorology, drainage systems
      • Catastrophic events like cloud bursts and flash floods, if any would be documented.
      • For estimation of Sedimentation rate direct sampling of river flow is

to be done during EIA to get actual silt flow rate (to be expressed in ha-m km-2 year-1). The one year of EIA study will provide an opportunity to do this for ascertaining the actual silt flow rate.

      • Water availability for the project and the aquatic fauna
      • Design discharge and its recurrence interval

 

4.             Biological Resources

                                     i.  Flora

        General vegetation pattern and floral diversity viz. trees, shrubs, grasses, herbs, significant microflora etc. Vegetation should cover all gropus of plants including lichens and orchids.

        Forests and forest types

        Water body inundating forest area

        Vegetation profile, no. of species in the project area, etc.

        Community Structure through Vegetation mapping

        Species Diversity Index (Shanon-Weaver Index) of the biodiversity in the project area as well as plant fossil & phytoplankton

        Documentation of economically important plants, medicinal as well as timber, fuel wood etc.

        Endemic, endangered and threatened species

        Impact of impoundment and construction activities on the vegetation

        Cropping and Horticulture pattern and practices in the study area.

        Location of any Biosphere Reserve, National Park or Sanctuary in the vicinity of the project , if any

        For categorization of sub-catchments into various erosion classes and for the consequent CAT plan, the entire catchment (Indian portion) is to be considered and not only the directly draining catchment,

 

                                    ii.  Fauna

  Fauna study should be carried-out for all group of animals

        Inventorisation of terrestrial wildlife and present status

        Zoogeographic distribution/affinities, Endemic, threatened and endangered species and animal fossil

 

                                   iii.  Avifauna

  Fauna study should be carried-out for all group of animals

        Status

        Resident/Migratory/Passage migrants

        Zoogeographic distribution/affinities, endemic, threatened and endangered species & animal fossils

        Impact of project on threatened/endangered taxa, if any

        Inventorisation of terrestrial wildlife and present status along with schedule of the species

                                  iv.  Aquatic Ecology

        Aqua- fauna like macro-invertebrates, zooplankton, phytoplanktons, benthos etc.

        Conservation Status

Fish and Fisheries

        Fish migrations, if any

        Breeding grounds

        Impact of dam building on fish migration and habitat degradation

        Overall ecological impact upto 10 Km d/s from the confluence of the TRT with the river and the impact of untreated and waste water in to the river and the alternatives explored.

                                    v.  Conservation areas and status of threatened/endangered taxa

        Biotic Pressures

        Management plan for conservation areas and threatened/endangered taxa

 

                                                 vi.      Remote Sensing & GIS studies various maps Various maps providing salient features of the project need to be depicted in proper scale map of at least 1:15,000 like

 

         The project layout shall be superimposed on a contour map of ground elevation showing main project features (viz. location of dam, head works, main canal, branch canals, quarrying etc.) shall be depicted in a scaled map.

        Delineation of critically degraded areas in the directly draining catchment on the basis of Silt Yield Index as per the methodology of AISLUS

      The location map of the proposed project.

        Land use and land cover mapping

        Drainage pattern/map

        Soil map of the study area

        Geo-physical features, slope and relief maps Geological and seismotectonic maps of the study area showing main project features.

Remote sensing studies, interpretation of satellite imagery, topographic sheets along with ground verification shall be used to develop the land use/land cover pattern of study area using overlay mapping techniques viz. Geographic Information Systems (GISs). False colour composite (FCC) generated from satellite data of study area should be presented

        Demarcation of Snow fed and rain fed areas for a realistic estimate of the water availability.

                                 vii.  Socio-economic aspects

        Land details*

        Demographic profile

        Ethnographic Profile

        Economic structure

        Development profile

        Agricultural practices

        Cultural and aesthetics sites

        Infrastructure facilities: education, health and hygiene, communication network, etc.

        Impact on socio-cultural and ethnographic aspects due to dam building report.

*Report would include list of all the Project Affected Families with their names, education, land holdings, other properties, occupation, etc.

 

                                viii.  Collection of data pertaining to water (physico-chemical and biological parameters), air and noise environment and likely impact during construction and post construction periods.

 

                                  ix.  Air Environment

        Baseline Information on ambient air quality in the project area covering aspects like SPM, RSPM, Sox, NOx

        Noise Environment

        Traffic density in the project area

 

                                    x.  Construction Methodology and Schedule including the tunnel driving operations, machinery and charge density, etc.

 

B.            IMPACT PREDICTION

Air

        Changes in ambient levels and ground level concentrations due to total emissions from point, line and area sources

        Effects on soils, material, vegetation, and human health

        Impact of emissions DG sets used for construction power if any, on air environment.

Noise

        Changes in ambient levels due to noise generated from equipment, blasting operations and movement of vehicles

        Effect on fauna and human health

Water

        Changes in quality

        Sedimentation of reservoir

        Impact on fish fauna

        Impact of sewage disposal

 

Land

        Changes in land use and drainage pattern

        Changes in land quality including effects of waste disposal

        Riverbank and their stability

        Impact due to submergence

Biological

        Deforestation and shrinkage of animal habitat

        Impact on fauna and flora (including aquatic species if any) due to decreased flow of water

        Impact on rare and endangered species, endemic species, and migratory path/route of animals, if any

        Impact on breeding and nesting grounds, if any

        Impact on animal distribution, migration routes (if any), habitat fragmentation and destruction due to dam building activity

Socio-economic Aspects

        Impact on the local community including demographic changes

        Impact on economic status

        Impact on human health

        Impact on increased traffic

        Impact on Holy Places and Tourism

 

        Downstream impact on water, land & human environment due to drying up of the river in the stretch between dam site and powerhouse site.

        Positive as well as negative impacts likely to be accrued due to the project are to be listed.

 

I.             ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGENET PLAN (EMP)

 

a)           Catchment Area Treatment Plan

Delineation of micro-watersheds in the river catchment and mapping of critically degraded areas requiring various biological and engineering treatment measures. Identification of area for treatment based upon Remote Sensing & GIS methodology and Silt Yield Index (SYI) method of AISLUS coupled with ground survey. The prioritization of watershed for treatment based upon SYI. Spatial Information in each micro watershed should be earmarked on maps in the scale of 1:50,000. The Cat plan would be prepared with year-wise Physical and financial details.

 

b)         Creation of Green Belt Plan around the Periphery of the Reservoir and Compensatory Afforestation Scheme in consultation with the State Forest department.

 

c) Biodiversity Conservation and Wild life Management Plan for conservation and preservation of endemic, rare and endangered species of flora and fauna (in consultation with the State Wildlife Department)

 

c)           Fisheries Development plan for conservation/management of

reverine fishes.

 

d)       Resettlement & Rehabilitation (R&R) Plan along with social/community development. R&R plan would be framed in consultation with the Project Affected Persons (PAPs), Project Authorities and the State Government. R & R Plan would be drafted according to the NPRR 2003 and the policy of State Government.

 

e)         Muck Disposal Plan (Suitable sites for dumping of excavated material would be identified in consultation with the State Pollution Control Board and Forest Department)

 

f)             Energy Conservation Measures

 

g)           Dam Break Analysis & Disaster Management Plan.

 

h)         Restoration and landscaping of working Areas: reclamation of borrow pits (quarry sites) and construction areas.

 

i)               Public Health Delivery System including the provisions for drinking water facility for the local community.

 

j)             Management during the Road Construction

k)             Sanitation & Solid Waste Management Plan for domestic waste from colonies and labour camps, etc.

 

l)               Water and Air Quality & Noise Environment Management during construction and post-construction periods.

 

m)          Forest Protection Plan

 

n)           Reservoir RIM Treatment Plan

 

o)           Environmental Monitoring Programme (With physical & financial details covering all the aspects form EMP).

 

p)             For such a large and high budget project, neglecting drinking water component may not be justified. Therefore, if supplying safe drinking water to the population surrounding the project area is not to be considered, a clear justification for this may be given

 

q)             Option assessment study to show that are the option available for fulfilling the needs of the people that the project hopes to fulfill. This section should also show if and how the proposed project is the least cost option and also include reducing the transmission and distribution losses to the minimum.

 

 

r)           A summary of Cost Estimate for all the plans (Cost for implementing all the Environmental Management Plans including the cost for implementing Environmental Monitoring Programme, aforesaid compensation, mitigation and management measures, etc.)

In respect of North-East, the following should be added

        Tribal area development plan as the area is predominantly tribal.

        Mitigations measures to check shifting cultivation (Zhum Cultivation) in the catchment area with provision for alternative and better agricultural practices

        In addition to Socio-economic aspects of the study area, a separate chapter on socio-cultural aspects based upon study on Ethnography of the area.